Valerie Gommon Midwife’s Blog

Archive for the ‘Homebirth’ Category

Very sadly it looks fairly certain that Independent Midwifery will end in October 2013.  The Government and Nursing and Midwifery Council have for a long time been recommending that Independent Midwives should have professional indemnity insurance (negligence insurance) despite it not being commercially available in the marketplace i.e. insurers do not provide this insurance for midwives.  You can read more about the current situation here http://www.independentmidwives.org.uk/?node=11615

An E.U. Directive is now due to come into force to implement this change and our current information is that it will be illegal for us to practice without professional indemnity insurance from October 2013.  This means that women will be denied the choice of choosing an Independent Midwife and we will be denied the choice of working independently and will be forced to stop practising or to return into the NHS.

The Independent Midwives UK organisation has been working tirelessly for years to find a solution and it is just possible that an eleventh hour solution will be found but this is now looking unlikely.

A group of midwives have formed an organisation called Neighbourhood Midwives www.neighbourhoodmidwives.org.uk/ and are working towards setting up an employee-owned social enterprise organization, to provide an NHS commissioned caseload midwifery homebirth service, based in the local community.  This may prove to be a workable alternative to Independent Midwifery but at present (if it comes to fruition) the service will only be able to accept “low-risk” women and this is of concern to all of us who have supported women with more complex situations, for example first time mothers, vaginal birth after a previous caesarean, twins, breech birth and women who are not deemed “low risk”.  The aim of Neighbourhood Midwives will be to extend their remit to include more women as soon as possible.

There is already a precedent for this type of care as One to One Midwives in Liverpool www.onetoonemidwives.org have already managed to set up a caseloading midwifery service (similar to independent midwifery in that a woman will care for a caseload of women throughout the whole of the pregnancy, birth and postnatal period) within the NHS.

It is a very sad time for midwifery and for women’s choice, but perhaps good things will come out of it, I certainly hope so.

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This is a guest blog written by Sarah Ward.

 Homebirth & PPH

Women often worry about what would happen if a woman bled heavily after a home birth. Throughout history, severe blood loss has been one of the main causes of women dying in childbirth, and it remains the most common cause of maternal death in the world [WHO, 1994].

Efficient management of postpartum haemorrhage is one of the wonders of modern obstetrics. The key is the availability of oxytocic drugs, which make the uterus contract down and normally stop bleeding.

You can choose to have either a ‘managed’ or a ‘physiological’ third stage, at home or in hospital. A ‘managed’ third stage means you have an injection of syntometrine as a precautionary measure. A ‘physiological’ third stage means you take a ‘wait and see’ approach to the delivery of the placenta, and only have drugs if you are worried about bleeding or if the placenta is taking longer than you want to wait for it to turn up

Sometimes one hears of doctors trying to dissuade women from home birth because of the risk of postpartum haemorrhage yet in fact severe bleeding after a home birth in the UK is rare, and postpartum haemorrhage is usually managed at home or by transfer to hospital. Despite the fears of some doctors, you would be very unlikely to bleed to death after a planned home birth in a developed country.

A famous review of quality studies of home birth (Olsen, 1997) looked at outcomes for over 24,000 women and found no maternal deaths. The National Birthday Trust Fund study looked at around 6,000 planned home births in the UK, and found no maternal deaths.

Where treatment for postpartum haemorrhage is needed, there are two elements. Emergency treatment focuses on stopping the bleeding, and in severe cases, keeping blood volume up while the bleeding is stopped. The other element of treatment is helping you to recover from blood loss, by administering a blood transfusion or iron supplements, this usually occurs several days after the bleed after blood tests have been performed.

What can a midwife do about heavy bleeding at a home birth?

Your midwife would follow exactly the same steps that she would take in hospital. Oxytocic drugs to manage blood loss are part of the basic kit that midwives take to every home birth.

If these did not bring the situation under control quickly then an ambulance would be called, and the midwife would take other steps if necessary, such as manually compressing your womb to stop bleeding.

In the UK most midwives can put an intravenous drip in at home while they are waiting for an ambulance to arrive.

What if the midwife isn’t there?

In the rare circumstances that a baby is born so quickly the midwife has not arrived yet, or the bleed has occurred after the midwife has left (also extremely rare), then you can do the following:-

  • ·       Call 999 if you can’t get hold of your midwife immediately
  • ·       Massage the uterus firmly – this often stops the bleeding immediately
  • ·       Pass urine
  • ·       Bi-manual compression – only if bleeding is extreme – involves someone continually massaging uterus externally and internally until help arrives

When the midwife arrives…

  • ·       She considers what we call the 4 T’s: Tone, Trauma, Tissue and Thrombin (clotting) factors.
  • ·       She can make sure the woman has passed urine and does not have a full bladder.
  • ·       She can use massage of the uterus, syntometrine or ergometrine medication to try stem bleeding. These medications induce a sustained uterine contraction. The massage of the uterus will sometimes expel any tissue obstructing good uterine clamp-down.
  • ·       The midwife can check for a tear, sometimes we can tear internally and it be less obvious
  • ·       Bi-manual compression will be used and transfer to hospital will happen as soon as an ambulance arrives if bleeding is not slowing.
  • ·       If bleeding has been easily stopped and woman feels fine then she may end up declining transfer to hospital. However in hospital they can offer a number of extra helpful interventions for anyone who has experienced or is experiencing a life-threatening PPH.

Placental Problems

  • ·       Occasionally the placenta doesn’t separate properly and obstructs, the midwife can manually remove it allowing the uterus to contract down and stem the bleeding

Can more be done in hospital than at home?

  • ·       The answer is yes, but only because there are more staff on hand, however the chances of having a life threatening PPH are far far greater in a hospital than at home in the first place.
  • ·       The most common reason for PPH is to do with atonic uterus, where the womb fails to contract down properly. At home, this is dealt with in the same way and with mostly the same drugs that would be used in hospital.
  • ·       It’s important to mention that PPH at home is reasonably rare, by the very nature of the fact that the major risk factors for PPH are things which only happen in hospital (instrumental deliveries, long hours on syntocinon drips, caesarean section etc).
  • ·       The last confidential enquiry into maternal deaths listed approx 5 deaths from PPH, all of which were in hospital, four of them were following instrumental deliveries and one following caesarean.

 How likely is post-partum haemorrhage after a home birth?

  • ·       PPH is significantly less likely to happen after a home birth than after a hospital birth.. This is probably because home birth reduces the risk of interventions which can contribute to PPH
  • ·       For more info, see the National Birthday Trust Fund study in the first instance, but numerous other studies have also found a reduced PPH rate in planned home births.
  • ·       Part of the reason for higher rates of blood loss after hospital birth is that PPH is statistically more likely to occur after intervention such as caesarean section, assisted delivery (forceps or ventouse), or medical induction or augmentation of labour (having a drip to speed labour up). None of these things will be happening at home. If you were to have any of these interventions, you would already be in hospital.
  • ·       There are some ways in which planning a home birth actually reduces your chances of having a PPH. Simply planning a home birth significantly reduces your chances of ending up with a caesarean or an assisted delivery – labour just seems to progress more smoothly at home, leading to less call for intervention. As these interventions increase the risk of PPH, by reducing the risk of the intervention, you are reducing the risk of PPH.

Can you have a home birth after having had a PPH with a previous baby?

  • ·       To try to work out the chances of a PPH recurring, and whether this is ‘safe’ for a home birth, you’d need to know why the PPH occurred, and if the same circumstances were likely to recur.
  • ·       Much depends on how you felt after the PPH.  Some women feel great even after losing a considerable amount of blood whereas others may feel terrible only losing 300ml.
  • ·       Its often hard to accurately measure the amount of blood loss. In the UK we call a loss of 500ml a PPH, but Europe don’t record a PPH unless over 1000ml.
  • ·       What were the circumstances the PPH occurred in? Were there known risk factors for PPH which would not apply this time? For instance, PPH is more common after assisted deliveries, first babies, large babies, induction or augmentation of labour.

o      If she needed an assisted delivery this time she would transfer to hospital, so that shouldn’t affect her status as regards home birth.

o      Likewise, her labour is not going to be induced with prostaglandins or augmented with syntocinon.

  • ·       Was the PPH a ‘true’ PPH in terms of being blood loss from her uterus, or was it associated with perineal tearing or episiotomy? Blood from both sources ends up in the same measuring jug, but the difference is significant.
  • ·       Did she have a retained placenta, or did the bleeding occur after the placenta was delivered – some ‘uterine atony’ involved?

Conclusion

All in all the risks of a PPH are lower in a planned homebirth than in a planned hospital birth.

However if one should occur, there are many ways it can be treated successfully at home, or by transfer to hospital.

It’s also important to realise that a negative outcome from a PPH can also occur in a hospital situation as well as at home.

Having experienced a PPH following a birth is not an automatic barrier to home birth in the future, it would depend on the reasons why it occurred. In fact planning a home birth may significantly reduce the chances of having a PPH in the future.

 

PRESS RELEASE ISSUED 8th December 2011 by IM UK

RESPONSE TO CONTROVERSY OVER
PRIVATE MIDWIFERY PROVIDER:

SOCIAL ENTERPRISE PROVIDES THE ANSWER
IM UK reads with interest the mixed reactions to news of a contract between private midwifery provider One to One (Northwest) Ltd and NHS Wirral.  The service offered is one the NHS can rarely deliver: continuity of care from a midwife the woman knows, through pregnancy, birth and postnatally. However, concerns have been expressed about the impact of profit-driven private providers on the NHS.

“IM UK believes that the answer lies in social enterprise midwifery: continuity of care delivered by an organisation run by midwives and service users for the benefit of the local community,” states Annie Francis of IM UK.

“That is why we are establishing a social enterprise, named Neighbourhood Midwives, to offer local, community based midwifery services.  Care will be free at the point of access for women but provided by a social enterprise, whose values and culture are firmly rooted in a social mission and purpose. We are well down the path and are ready to provide services from April 2012.

“We are keen to be fully integrated into the whole maternity care pathway, ideally through the planned networks currently being discussed. We will be able to offer care to women planning a homebirth but often unable to access this choice because of current shortages of midwives within the NHS.”

Historically, insurance issues have been a barrier for not-for-profit providers.  During recent debates on the Health and Social Care Bill, Baroness Julia Cumberledge emphasised the need for social enterprise organisations such as Neighbourhood Midwives to be able to access insurance via the NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA). 
For further information contact:
Annie Francis
07977695948
annie.francis@independentmidwives.org.uk

Jill Crawford
07870924857
jill.crawford@independentmidwives.org.uk

Where to start?  Every day is different, so I’m going to give you a flavour of the sort of things I get up to.

Of course I have antenatal appointments; from the first tentative telephone enquiry I then arrange to meet up with a potential client (usually for an hour or so) so that we can discuss their past experiences, their hopes for this pregnancy, their concerns and most importantly so that they can get a “feel” as to whether they actually like and trust me.  Once a couple have decided to book me as their midwife I then usually give all their antenatal care in their own home (although I have done antenatal visits in The Bank of England medical room!).  The format of visits is that I carry out all the usual blood tests, urine and blood pressure checks, but also leave a lot of time for discussion so that over the course of the pregnancy we cover issues such as waterbirth, Vitamin K, when to call me and so on.

My clients come from a wide area – I am happy to take clients who live within approximately an hour’s radius of my home in Leighton Buzzard – so I do spend a fair bit of time driving, as well as liaising with G.P.’s and hospitals where necessary.

Four times a year I jointly organise an Antenatal Exhibition, this is an opportunity for pregnant couples to gather information about breastfeeding, pregnancy yoga, cloth nappies and the like.  We also organise Birth Preparation Workshops and am often to be found at the Community Desk in Central Milton Keynes on hand to speak to expectant parents and also regularly attend Study Day’s and midwifery meetings to ensure that I keep myself up-to-date with current research.

Obviously I spend much of my time being “on-call” for births.  My own family are now pretty much grown-up and the commitment isn’t as big as one might imagine as I rarely have more than two births during a month – it is important that I don’t over-commit myself as the whole point of what I do is that I guarantee to be there for the birth.  Babies don’t always read the text books though!  I have had three births in one week, as of course some babies do come early and some come late!  As you will appreciate, the birth is the big event, and it can on occasion go on for some time.

Baby being here doesn’t mean that my job ends!  In fact, postnatal visiting is often one of the busiest times as the family may need quite a lot of support in the early days.  The majority of my clients choose to give birth at home; however some either need to, or choose to give birth in hospital.

I visit my clients for up to four weeks postnatally and it is a joy to see the baby thriving and although discharging clients is always tinged with sadness it is also great to know that I have played a part in helping the family on to the next stage of their life.  (I do usually keep in touch, perhaps not as often as I would like, but I often get e-mails and photographs and usually pop in when I’m passing!).

So, in summary I guess the main differences between me and an NHS midwife are that you are buying my time; antenatal visits usually take around an hour and a half (instead of perhaps 10 – 15 minutes at your local surgery), are arranged more frequently and take place at a time and place to suit you. Most importantly you will receive full continuity of care – I will see you at each visit to build our relationship and plan your care and you will know that (barring exceptional circumstances) I will be with you in labour and available 24/7 for urgent help.

I am always happy to discuss anything that you are concerned about; please do feel free to call.

Written by Valerie Gommon, BA (Hons), RM, Independent Midwife

www.3shiresmidwife.co.uk 01525 385153

I guess the first choice is where do you want to give birth, at home, in a birthing centre or in a hospital?  Although you may be asked this at your first appointment you can actually decide at any time, even when you are in labour (although it may be easier if you make plans earlier).

There are so many factors to take into account, but the most important thing is to give birth where you feel safest.  Labour is a very instinctive, hormonal event and if you are scared or unhappy with your environment you will not labour so easily.

Homebirth:

There are many benefits to be gained by giving birth at home.  The woman is in familiar surroundings and is therefore more relaxed allowing the birthing hormones to work properly.  Labour is usually shorter, less painful and the mother is more likely to have a normal birth (so less need for ventouse, forceps or caesareans), she is more likely to breastfeed and less likely to suffer postnatal depression and she is more likely to report that she is satisfied with her experience.  These claims are backed up by research and evidence can be found at www.nct.org.uk/about-us/what-we-do/research/roepregnancy-birth

Birth Centre/Midwifery Led Unit:

These are often seen as a half-way house between home and hospital.  They have many of the benefits of home, a more relaxed environment but if you are concerned about the privacy aspect of birth (for example if you live in a shared house, or are concerned about the neighbours) or the mess (which in reality is rarely an issue) then a birth centre may be right for you.

Birth Centres are only an option for women whose pregnancy is defined as “low risk” which means that the birth is expected to progress without complication.  Should a complication occur you will need to be transferred into a hospital where more advanced help is available.

Hospital:

Many women choose to give birth in hospital because they believe it to be the safest place.  Of course it is true that the hospital will have advanced facilities if needed however you should also bear in mind that sometimes these facilities are over-used and that just by setting foot in a hospital you increase your chance of using some of that help!  If you choose to give birth in hospital my top tip would be to stay at home as long as possible.

Waterbirth:

I think the use of water in a labour and birth can be hugely beneficial.  I recognise that not all women will want or need a waterbirth, but I would strongly recommend all women not to rule the use of water out.  It may be that you use water by having a bath or shower in labour; it can be hugely comforting to have shower water jetting onto your tummy or back whilst in labour.

As I see it, if we are achy or tense a bath is usually helpful.  It works in just the same way in labour; water is usually relaxing.  Another benefit is that women are much more mobile in labour and have their weight supported by the water making it easier to move around.  Lastly (dare I say it) if you are in a birthpool no one can interfere with you!  You are in your own space and are much more in control of what happens.

Most hospitals now have at least one birthing pool and if it is something that appeals to you I suggest you discuss it with your midwife and let the labour ward midwife know as soon as you arrive at the hospital.  For homebirths there is a considerable choice of birthpools available, for example rigid “bath” type pools that come with and without water heaters and inflatable pools.

Active birth:

Most midwives will agree that by being as active as possible you give yourself the best chance of having a normal birth.  In early labour listen to your body – if you can rest then do so, if you can eat then have something to eat and also make sure you drink plenty and pass urine frequently.  As the labour progresses keep changing position as your body directs; some women want to squat, be on all fours, pace around … most importantly change your position don’t just take to bed.  Being active and gravity will help you baby find its way through your pelvis and may well shorten your labour.

Antenatally it is helpful to prepare for the labour by undertaking gentle exercise, perhaps walking, swimming or yoga.  I wish you a lovely birth wherever you decide it should be!

Hungarian midwife Agnes Gereb has been jailed for supporting homebirths.

Agnes a highly experienced gynaecologist, midwife and internationally recognised home birth expert who has successfully helped deliver 3,500 babies at home.

The legal situation is ambiguous in Hungary, the constitution  gives a mother the right to give birth at home but also prevents her doing so by arguing that the practical conditions to ensure a safe home birth do not exist, thus in effect making homebirth illegal.

As a Health Professional I know the huge benefits of homebirth.  Indeed there has been much research which supports the known benefits of homebirth:

  • Reduction to the length of labour
  • Increased normal vaginal delivery rate (reduced need for forceps, ventouse, caesarean)
  • Reduced need for pharmacological pain relief
  • Increased breastfeeding rate
  • Increased satisfaction of experience
  • Decreased postnatal depression

Agnes Gereb deserves to be congratulated on her support for women who wish to give birth at home and certainly not punished and imprisoned.

The Hungarian Government is breaching civil liberties in denying women access to homebirth and stands alone in its position.  I implore them to do rectify this dreadful situation.

If you wish to help you can:

1. Send a card to Agnes at the jail.

2. Write to the Hungarian Ambassador in your country.

3. Write to the Minister of Health in Hungary

4. Write to the Minister of Justice in Hungary

5. The President of Hungary

6. Send this email to anyone, in any country, asking them to take similar action.

7. Send a copy of your letter to Agnes’s lawyer – Bea Bodrogi at
bbodrogi@gmail.com and her son Daniel at ceu@szinhaz.hu

8. Access the Facebook site and send details to anyone you know
http://www.facebook.com/pages/Podpora-pro-Agnes-Gereb-Support-for-Agnes-Gereb/139577179421729

For any further information or help in the above case please contact either:

Donal Kerry (mobile) 0036309242190 email: free@birth.hu

or Monika Schanda email: free@birth.hu

Visit the website: http://www.birth.hu

Relevant addresses:

The Prison:
Fovárosi Buntetes Vegrehajtasi Intezet., 1055 Bp., Nagy Ignac u. 5-11, Hungary

Hungarian Ambassador. You can find the address in your country on the following web site:
http://www.mfa.gov.hu/kum/en/bal/missions/missions_abroad/.

Dr Miklos Szocska
Ministry of Health, Social and Family Affairs
Budapest 1051
Arany Janos Utca
Utca 6-8, Hungary

Email: euallamtitkar@nefmi.gov.hu

Ministry of Justice and Law Enforcement
Igazsagugyi és Rendeszeti Miniszterium
1363 Budapest, Pf. 54.
Hungary

Minister: dr. Forgacs Imre Jozsef
The President of Hungary
Viktor Orban, 1054 Budapest, Hungary, Szechenyi rakpart 19

No two pregnancies are the same, so it is very important that you continue to look after yourself by eating and resting as much as you possibly can.  Remember this time you are also looking after your little one(s) too.  You may feel better or more tired this time around; and certainly having a toddler is hard work.  If your toddler sleeps then you should rest and not rush around doing housework!  If you are exhausted try asking a friend if they would have your toddler for a couple of hours so you can rest.  I can’t stress enough that you need to eat a good diet – ensure that you eat plenty of protein and iron rich foods.

You may notice that you “show” earlier second time around, this is because your tummy muscles have been stretched before and is quite normal.  You may also notice baby movements a little earlier because you know what you are looking for, but don’t worry if you don’t!

Some women say that they are anxious about labour second time around; if you had a difficult labour talk to your midwife about it – ask her what happened and why it happened and what are the chances of it happening again, however second births are usually much easier and shorter.  It is usual to be a bit anxious about labour – most women are, but remember you did it last time and you can do it again!

I think it is definitely worth attending childbirth classes if you can – I had four children and I went to classes each time – it gives you time to concentrate on this pregnancy and this new baby; and a birth plan is a great idea, second time around you are better prepared as you know what to expect, you know what you want and don’t want to happen so put it down into a birth plan and if you need advice speak to your midwife.

Successive reports have called for one-to-one care in labour as all outcomes are improved, for example women are more likely to have a normal birth if they receive one-to-one care.  However, to some women this means having the same midwife from booking, through the antenatal period, labour and birth and until postnatal discharge – this type of care may not be available in your area unless you employ an Independent Midwife www.independentmidwives.org.uk.

Consider having your baby at home, there are so many benefits, women usually have shorter and easier labours and this time you will be better able to read your body and can stay at home if you feel comfortable and relaxed and you won’t have to leave your first child whilst you are in hospital.  Staying upright and active will help with the contractions and also keep the baby in the best possible position for birth, but your body will tell you what you need to do; try to relax and have faith in the birthing process.

Women generally recover quicker second time around, this is partly because labour is usually quicker and easier – and also because being an experienced mother usually helps to establish feeding more quickly.

Unfortunately, the more babies you have, the stronger the after pains usually are – this is because your uterus is having to work harder to contract.  Ask for paracetamol which will help and is perfectly safe to take.

Remember that your other child(ren) will need extra love and reassurance – your new baby is much tougher than you think, try to involve the older sibling(s) in what you are doing and have patience – it is usual for children to regress a bit when they have a new baby in the house.  Accept any help that is offered and consider staying in your pyjamas for a few days – it shows that you are not at full strength.  I think women try too hard to be superwoman, just allow yourself some time to enjoy your new baby – they aren’t babies for long, although it sometimes feels like it when you are in the thick of it!


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